Tiompheevii Wheat (Zanduri)

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Triticum timopheevii Winter

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Description

http://growseed.org/Georgian%20Wheat.pdf Triticum timopheevii Zhuk. (Zanduri, Chelta
Zanduri, Photo 10): Thanks to its unique properties,
Zanduri is the most important wheat. Of its unique
properties, mention should be made of Zanduri’s
absolute immunity to both – diseases and pests.
Wheat is known to be prone to numerous diseases
and pest. Some fungus diseases (rusts, smut,
powdery mildew, etc.) may lead to a 25-30% loss
of the yield. After Zanduri, wheat had become
known to the general public not only in Georgia but
abroad as well (in 1932, when Zhukovskyi
described and classified the wheat as Triticum
timopheevii), the intensive utilization of the wheat
as germplasm began. The initial information about
Zanduri comes from Güldenstädt (1771-1773), then
Georgi (1795-1800). They described Zanduri wheat
as the cultivated einkorn – T. monococcum, which
can be explained by the fact that this very variety
predominated in Zanduri sowings. Later, when as a
result of divergence, the share of T. timopheevii in
the ceonosis had increased, arose a need to define
their name. Locals used to name T. monococcum
and T. timopheevii according to their spike shape –
Gvatsa Zanduri and Chelta Zanduri respectively,
while the cenosis retained its common name
Zanduri; later (1958), a new (third) variety – T.
zhukovskyi Men. & Er., was added to the ceonosis.
In 1948, Menabde delineated the exact distribution
area of this wheat, which looks as follows: the
northern boundary of distribution goes along the
Tsageri-Orbeli-Lailashi-Patara Oni line; the eastern
boundary is Kvanchkara-Dghnori; the western –
Tamakoni-Gordi-Mekhena-Dghnori. These sites are
known as the wheat’s exclusive distribution area.
New varieties derived in crosses with the wheat in
Australia, and America, such as Konly, Timsten,
Timgalen, Timvera, Gabo, Bledzoe, Georgia 1123,
etc., share Zanduri wheat’s disease immunity traits.
These varieties are also immunity donors and gave
rise to numerous other varieties.

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