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Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum – Emmer differs from einkorn in that it was more widely grown during the pre-pottery, Neolithic. It was more adaptable to more locations, and emmer’s ripened seed heads didn’t shatter. This made harvest easier. Like einkorn and spelt, emmer is a hulled wheat. It requires further milling to release the grains from its hulls. Emmer is native to the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East at least 10,000 years ago. Today, in the Middle East, it is primarily a relic crop grown in the mountains because of good yields on poor soils and resistance to fungal diseases. It is also popular as a specialty health food crop in some parts of Europe. In Italy it is known as “farro medio”.

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